Learning First and Johns Hopkins Institute for Education Policy collaborated on this report, which investigates the role that a content-rich, standards aligned curriculum plays in improving student learning outcomes, equity, and school improvement. This analysis, targeted at state education staff, provides a review of current approaches to curriculum development, implementation, and implications in both the United States and Australia. The authors include a framework for implementing a high-quality curriculum throughout a school system. The framework outlines key operational and strategic components for implementing a high-quality curriculum and describes the importance of the political environment and education policy landscape. The framework also includes other key curricular implementation considerations, such as (a) aligning the curriculum with state standards, (b) evaluating processes used to validate high-quality curriculum, (c) building stakeholder support, (d) putting into practice a quality curriculum, and (e) building capacity for curriculum implementation through high-quality professional development.