This paper from the Council of Chief State Schools Officers is one of two that discuss designing state systems of school identification and support under the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). It provides a comprehensive overview of the federal law and considerations for developing and revising state systems of school identification and support under ESSA.
ESSA requires states to identify three categories of low-performing schools in their ESSA plan submissions: schools in need of comprehensive support and improvement (CSI) based on the performance of all students, targeted support and improvement (TSI) based on subgroup performance, and additional targeted support and improvement (ATSI) based on the lowest-performing subgroups. This resource also presents state education agency (SEA) staff with a set of approved approaches and legal information for each school category as well as a flowchart of ESSA requirements for school identification.
The author emphasized that the designing of state systems of school identification and support require developing a theory of action and determining the capacity of states to support low-performing districts and schools. This document provides example processes and/or strategies of support states could use based on two theories of action. Finally, this paper provides SEA staff with policy levers that are needed to create an effective system of identification.